Labour, goods and service markets

Post n°230
Published on 10/01/2021

By Daniele Siena and Riccardo Zago 

The occupational composition of the labour market is important for the relationship between prices and unemployment, i.e. the Phillips Curve (PC). The decline of the share of routine jobs can explain 1/4 of the recent flattening of the PC in the European Monetary Union (EMU).

Chart 1: The Slope of the Phillips Curve and Job Polarisation
Chart 1: The Slope of the Phillips Curve and Job Polarisation Note: This chart plots the slope of the price PC (1.a) and the routine employment share (1.b) across the EMU. Grey areas represent recessions, blue areas are the 95% confidence interval.
Post n°220
Published on 06/18/2021

By Thomas Ferrière and Dorian Henricot

The price dynamics of corporate and residential real estate are highly correlated in France, both historically and geographically. The health crisis is firstly an asymmetrical shock affecting primarily the demand for corporate real estate. Nevertheless, we show that a fall in prices in this sector could affect residential property prices, particularly in areas where supply is most constrained.

Chart 1: annual growth of office and residential real estate prices as a national average, and distribution by département.
Chart 1: annual growth of office and residential real estate prices as a national average, and distribution by département.
Post n°207
Published on 03/08/2021

The Covid-19 crisis has had a profound impact on the organisation of labour. Women have been on the front line both in tackling the virus and in looking after their family and relatives in these difficult times. Their participation in the labour market has not been significantly affected, thanks both to public aid policies and to their efforts in balancing their professional and private responsibilities.

Chart 1: Change in the employment rate by gender, comparison between the Great Recession and the Covid crisis – Q4 2008 and 2019 = 100
Chart 1: Change in the employment rate by gender, comparison between the Great Recession and the Covid crisis – Q4 2008 and 2019 = 100 Source: INSEE. Key: The female employment rate fell by 0.3 percentage point between Q4 2019 and Q1 2020.
Post n°202
Published on 02/03/2021

By Jérémi Montornès and Marie-Baïanne Khder

The authors belonged to the Economic Studies and National Accounts Directorate at Insee when they wrote the article from which this blog post is derived. The authors would like to thank D. Blanchet for his helpful comments when writing the article. They remain solely responsible for any errors and omissions.

Irish GDP growth over the recent period has been strongly influenced by transfers from US multinationals. These transactions have increased since 2015. Changes in Irish GDP and its components now reflect multinationals’ choice of location in addition to cyclical fluctuations.

Chart 1: Quarterly changes in GDP and GNI in volume  (in %, adjusted for seasonal and working day variations)
Chart 1: Quarterly changes in GDP and GNI in volume (in %, adjusted for seasonal and working day variations) Source: Central Statistics Office (CSO), national accounts
Post n°199
Published on 01/12/2021

By Antonin Bergeaud and Simon Ray

The health restrictions put in place in France and the rest of Europe have obliged firms and workers to resort to teleworking on a massive scale. By breaking down some of the existing barriers to home-working, this shock will probably mark a turning point in the use of teleworking. This in turn has major implications for workers, businesses and the economy.

Chart 1:  Cross-department heterogeneity in potential for teleworking
Chart 1: Cross-department heterogeneity in potential for teleworking Source: DADS, Dingel and Neiman (2020) and DARES (2019)
Post n°132
Published on 09/13/2019

By Yannick Kalantzis and Camille Thubin

The trade balance as a share of GDP reflects decisions regarding consumption, and therefore saving, and investment. Over the past 40 years, its dynamics in France have been dominated by the cycle of construction: the balance deteriorates in boom phases. The rise in household saving, which contributed to the surplus of the 1990s, was offset after the crisis by a higher share of government consumption in GDP.

Chart 1: Contributions to the Trade Balance,% of GDP in deviation from 1981
Chart 1: Contributions to the Trade Balance,% of GDP in deviation from 1981 Source: INSEE.
Post n°110
Published on 03/28/2019

By Gilbert Cette, Jimmy Lopez and Jacques Mairesse

The positive effect on productivity of reducing product market regulation and employment protection legislation has been extensively documented and analysed, leading to many structural reforms in OECD countries. On the basis of new measures of rent creation and rent sharing, we show that further product market deregulation could substantially increase productivity, notably in France and Italy.

Chart 1: Expected total factor productivity gains from product market deregulation
Chart 1: Expected total factor productivity gains from product market deregulation Sources: Authors’ calculations assuming a switch to the most pro-competitive regulations
Post n°89
Published on 10/09/2018

By Baptiste Meunier

Despite full employment, Japan is struggling with wage stagnation. Although this "enigma" can in part be explained by cyclical factors - subdued productivity and inflation expectations - it is also being exacerbated by structural factors linked to the country’s social model, notably the duality of its labour market. As a result, the prospects for a rise in wages and hence inflation remain limited.

Croissance des salaires et chômage au Japon
Chart1 – Wage growth and unemployment in Japan Source: OECD
Post n°76
Published on 07/17/2018

By Julia Schmidt (with Walter Steingress)

Current trade disputes focus on import tariffs. However non-tariff barriers still constitute a large share of barriers to trade. Cross-country harmonisation of product standards reduces these barriers. The trade-enhancing effects of such harmonisation efforts are equivalent to a reduction in import tariffs of 1.8 percentage points, compared to an average applied tariff rate of 2.0% for the European Union.

Chart 1: Trade Restrictiveness Index
Chart 1: Trade Restrictiveness Index Source: Overall Trade Restrictiveness Index by Kee et al. (2009). The data used were computed for the year 2009.
Post n°74
Published on 06/28/2018

By Françoise Drumetz and Rémy Lecat

Despite persistent high unemployment, recruitment difficulties have already started to arise in France. The current unemployment rate is approaching its structural level, but wages have been relatively sluggish. These pressures partly reflect temporary effects that are common during periods of intense job creation. In the medium term, more effective vocational training would help to lower the level of unemployment at which these pressures begin to emerge.

Chart 1: Downward unemployment rigidity in France?  Minimum, maximum and average unemployment rates for the 1985-2017 period
Chart 1: Downward unemployment rigidity in France? Minimum, maximum and average unemployment rates for the 1985-2017 period Source: Eurostat.

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