Globalisation

Post n°223
Published on 07/14/2021

By Antoine Berthou and Sebastian Stumpner

Lockdowns and more generally restrictions introduced by governments during the Covid-19 pandemic contributed to the disruption of international trade in goods. We show that bilateral trade declined more when lockdowns were initially introduced in Spring 2020 with a higher degree of stringency. Moreover, the quantitative impact of lockdowns on trade weakened in the second half of 2020. This is especially the case of lockdowns implemented in the exporting country, which have little or no significant impact on trade in the second half of 2020.

Chart 1: The effect of lockdowns on bilateral trade has become weaker over time in 2020.
Chart 1: The effect of lockdowns on bilateral trade has become weaker over time in 2020
Post n°217
Published on 05/18/2021

Despite significant international financial support, low-income countries (LICs) are likely to be more affected by the crisis than advanced or emerging countries. Strengthening the IMF's financial safety net for LICs is in everyone's interest, in order to prevent these countries from becoming weak links in global risks, such as those related to health or climate change.

Chart 1: Average per capita GDP growth
Chart 1: Average per capita GDP growth Source: IMF (WEO, REO, April 2021)
Post n°216
Published on 05/12/2021

By Grâce Constant, Andréa Tran Van Hong and Marie Rouger 

In the face of the Covid-19 crisis, New Caledonia’s economy, which is highly dependent on nickel, is showing some resilience thanks to the buoyant global nickel market, while French Polynesia’s economy is being harder hit by the lockdown measures due to the high weight of tourism. The impact of the crisis is nonetheless being limited by non-market services, which are a key source of resilience in both territories.

Chart 1: Economic characteristics of the French overseas collectivities in the Pacific Ocean
Chart 1: Economic characteristics of the French overseas collectivities in the Pacific Ocean Source: Institut National de la Statistique et des Études Économiques (INSEE – French National Institute for Statistics and Economic Research).
Post n°205
Published on 02/23/2021

By Olivier de Bandt, Jean-Charles Bricongne and Lionel Fontagné

The environment that economic policy makers face today is characterised by both a large amount of uncertainty and a high level of globalisation. This blog post highlights a perception of increasing uncertainty by economic agents when external shocks become more frequent, and a faster transmission of these shocks when the economy is more open, or when traded goods are produced within more sophisticated "value chains". Globalisation has thus heightened the macroeconomic impact of uncertainty on the real economy, amplifying the consequences of international uncertainty shocks.

Chart 1: Uncertainty and openness of the euro area current account (1999-2019)
Chart 1: Uncertainty and openness of the euro area current account (1999-2019)
Post n°187
Published on 11/18/2020

By Peter Gubert and Patrick Branthomme

The technology balance of payments (TBP) provides a framework for analysing international technology transfers. After displaying a surplus in 2018, France's TBP stood at equilibrium at the end of 2019. The European Union's TBP shows a surplus comparable to that of the United States.

Chart 1: France: TBP at equilibrium in 2019 after a slight surplus in 2018 (EUR billion)/balance excluding insurance and tourism).
Chart 1: France: TBP at equilibrium in 2019 after a slight surplus in 2018 (EUR billion/balance excluding insurance and tourism). Source: Banque de France
Post n°180
Published on 09/16/2020

By Vivien Levy-Garboua, François Mouriaux, Tatiana Mosquera Yon and Mylène Sabatini

Since the 2008 financial crisis, captive financial institutions (special-purpose financial holding companies), subsidiaries of non-financial corporations (NFCs), have helped to drive growth in the financial sector, causing it to outstrip GDP growth. This trend reflects the increasingly complex and international organisational structures adopted by NFCs, but does not appear to have been accompanied by growth in risky financial transactions by these entities.

Chart 1a. Foreign direct investment by country, liabilities, % of GDP
Chart 1a. Foreign direct investment by country, liabilities, % of GDP Source: ECB
Post n°177
Published on 08/13/2020

The health crisis has severely impacted global trade and revived debates about the location of production. The widespread onshoring of manufacturing activities would mean abandoning the gains from international specialisation, but without necessarily making value chains more resilient. Given that French companies mainly source their inputs from Europe, a coordinated, EU-wide industrial strategy seems more appropriate.

Chart 1: Percentage change in volumes of manufacturing output and external trade between January-April 2019 and January-April 2020
Chart 1: Percentage change in volumes of manufacturing output and external trade between January-April 2019 and January-April 2020 Source: CPB World Trade Monitor. Authors' calculations.
Post n°163
Published on 05/27/2020

A pandemic is the type of challenges that can only be overcome by global action. Despite a pre-crisis context fraught with geopolitical and trade tensions, this necessary international coordination has been achieved in the economic field. However, the post-crisis phase will exacerbate conflicts of interest and constitute a "stress test" for multilateralism.

Chart 1. Measures taken by governments in response to the Covid 19 crisis (as a % of G20+ countries)
Chart 1. Measures taken by governments in response to the Covid 19 crisis (as a % of G20+ countries) Source: IMF, April 2020.
Post n°142
Published on 11/12/2019

By Bruno Cabrillac and Baptiste Meunier

The net international investment positions (NIIP) of the G20 countries have diverged since 1990. While this divergence results partly from persistent imbalances in goods and services, NIIPs have their own dynamics: the portfolio generates income and capital gains or losses. These dynamics have had a stabilising effect at the cost of financial risks for some debtors, i.e. the United States, and an excessive accumulation of safe assets by some creditors.

Chart 1 – Financial effects and real factors
Chart 1 – Financial effects and real factors Sources: Lane and Milesi-Ferretti (2017), authors’ calculations
Post n°140
Published on 10/29/2019

By Florian Lalanne and Irena Peresa

Responding to China’s greater capital account openness, major investment indices have started incorporating renminbi-denominated securities. This is expected to support portfolio inflows into China and increase the correlation between domestic asset prices and external factors. The consequences for other emerging markets are uncertain.

Composition of the MSCI Emerging markets index (%).
Chart 1: Composition of the MSCI Emerging markets index (%). Source: MSCI. Note: The index is composed of equity securities. China A-shares are renminbi-denominated equities traded in Shanghai and Shenzhen, while China offshore shares are mainly traded in Hong Kong.

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