Globalisation

Post n°231
Published on 10/07/2021

By Florian Le Gallo and Kevin Schmitt

After a sluggish first half of the year, international travel picked up in the summer of 2021. In France, travel receipts amounted to EUR10.6 billion, down 29% compared to the summer of 2019 but up 25% compared to 2020. This rebound can be attributed to travellers from nearby countries. However, French travel spending abroad is also more dynamic, so that the surplus is still slightly lower than in the summer of 2020.

Chart 1: France’s monthly travel receipts (EUR billions, non-seasonally-adjusted data)
Chart 1: France’s monthly travel receipts (EUR billions, non-seasonally-adjusted data) Source: Banque de France
Post n°227
Published on 08/18/2021

The pandemic has hit certain economies harder than others as a result of their particular sectoral specialisation. France’s specialisation in aeronautics, for example, explains nearly two-thirds of the decline in its global export market shares in the second half of 2020, and a third of the 8 percentage-point decline over the full year.

Chart 1: Value of goods exports (quarterly national accounts, Q4 2019=100).
Chart 1: Value of goods exports (quarterly national accounts, Q4 2019=100). Source: Quarterly national accounts, data adjusted for seasonal and working-day variations.
Post n°226
Published on 08/11/2021

By Valérie Chauvin and Pierre Sicsic

In 2020, the current account deficit of the balance of payments reached its highest level since 1982. It was financed by larger purchases of government securities by non-residents than in 2019, amounting to EUR 86 billion, which covered both the current account deficit and the increase in net private sector assets.

Chart 1:  financing from the rest of the world by sector (in EUR billions)
Chart 1: financing from the rest of the world by sector (in EUR billions) Source Banque de France
Post n°223
Published on 07/14/2021

By Antoine Berthou and Sebastian Stumpner

Lockdowns and more generally restrictions introduced by governments during the Covid-19 pandemic contributed to the disruption of international trade in goods. We show that bilateral trade declined more when lockdowns were initially introduced in Spring 2020 with a higher degree of stringency. Moreover, the quantitative impact of lockdowns on trade weakened in the second half of 2020. This is especially the case of lockdowns implemented in the exporting country, which have little or no significant impact on trade in the second half of 2020.

Chart 1: The effect of lockdowns on bilateral trade has become weaker over time in 2020.
Chart 1: The effect of lockdowns on bilateral trade has become weaker over time in 2020
Post n°217
Published on 05/18/2021

Despite significant international financial support, low-income countries (LICs) are likely to be more affected by the crisis than advanced or emerging countries. Strengthening the IMF's financial safety net for LICs is in everyone's interest, in order to prevent these countries from becoming weak links in global risks, such as those related to health or climate change.

Chart 1: Average per capita GDP growth
Chart 1: Average per capita GDP growth Source: IMF (WEO, REO, April 2021)
Post n°216
Published on 05/12/2021

By Grâce Constant, Andréa Tran Van Hong and Marie Rouger 

In the face of the Covid-19 crisis, New Caledonia’s economy, which is highly dependent on nickel, is showing some resilience thanks to the buoyant global nickel market, while French Polynesia’s economy is being harder hit by the lockdown measures due to the high weight of tourism. The impact of the crisis is nonetheless being limited by non-market services, which are a key source of resilience in both territories.

Chart 1: Economic characteristics of the French overseas collectivities in the Pacific Ocean
Chart 1: Economic characteristics of the French overseas collectivities in the Pacific Ocean Source: Institut National de la Statistique et des Études Économiques (INSEE – French National Institute for Statistics and Economic Research).
Post n°205
Published on 02/23/2021

By Olivier de Bandt, Jean-Charles Bricongne and Lionel Fontagné

The environment that economic policy makers face today is characterised by both a large amount of uncertainty and a high level of globalisation. This blog post highlights a perception of increasing uncertainty by economic agents when external shocks become more frequent, and a faster transmission of these shocks when the economy is more open, or when traded goods are produced within more sophisticated "value chains". Globalisation has thus heightened the macroeconomic impact of uncertainty on the real economy, amplifying the consequences of international uncertainty shocks.

Chart 1: Uncertainty and openness of the euro area current account (1999-2019)
Chart 1: Uncertainty and openness of the euro area current account (1999-2019)
Post n°187
Published on 11/18/2020

By Peter Gubert and Patrick Branthomme

The technology balance of payments (TBP) provides a framework for analysing international technology transfers. After displaying a surplus in 2018, France's TBP stood at equilibrium at the end of 2019. The European Union's TBP shows a surplus comparable to that of the United States.

Chart 1: France: TBP at equilibrium in 2019 after a slight surplus in 2018 (EUR billion)/balance excluding insurance and tourism).
Chart 1: France: TBP at equilibrium in 2019 after a slight surplus in 2018 (EUR billion/balance excluding insurance and tourism). Source: Banque de France
Post n°180
Published on 09/16/2020

By Vivien Levy-Garboua, François Mouriaux, Tatiana Mosquera Yon and Mylène Sabatini

Since the 2008 financial crisis, captive financial institutions (special-purpose financial holding companies), subsidiaries of non-financial corporations (NFCs), have helped to drive growth in the financial sector, causing it to outstrip GDP growth. This trend reflects the increasingly complex and international organisational structures adopted by NFCs, but does not appear to have been accompanied by growth in risky financial transactions by these entities.

Chart 1a. Foreign direct investment by country, liabilities, % of GDP
Chart 1a. Foreign direct investment by country, liabilities, % of GDP Source: ECB
Post n°177
Published on 08/13/2020

The health crisis has severely impacted global trade and revived debates about the location of production. The widespread onshoring of manufacturing activities would mean abandoning the gains from international specialisation, but without necessarily making value chains more resilient. Given that French companies mainly source their inputs from Europe, a coordinated, EU-wide industrial strategy seems more appropriate.

Chart 1: Percentage change in volumes of manufacturing output and external trade between January-April 2019 and January-April 2020
Chart 1: Percentage change in volumes of manufacturing output and external trade between January-April 2019 and January-April 2020 Source: CPB World Trade Monitor. Authors' calculations.

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