Financial markets

Post n°266
Published on 04/20/2022

By Hyacinthe Buisson, Henri Fraisse and Matthias Laporte

The increasing use of artificial intelligence (AI) or machine learning (ML) techniques could allow banks to develop new credit risk models. These techniques could lead to substantial reductions in capital requirements. However, the opaque nature of these algorithms and the governance challenges they raise might make their adoption less attractive.

Chart 1: Neural network models could lead to substantial  reductions in capital requirements
Chart 1: Neural network models could lead to substantial reductions in capital requirements Source: Fraisse and Laporte (2022) forthcoming in the Journal of Banking and Finance.
Post n°263
Published on 03/22/2022

By Mathieu Gex, Marie-Aline Vives

In response to Russia’s military invasion of Ukraine, the Council of the European Union has adopted a series of restrictive economic and financial measures, including the exclusion of seven Russian and three Belarusian banks from the SWIFT global financial messaging system. This blog post explains the key role SWIFT plays in the international financial ecosystem.

Chart 1. Increase in daily SWIFT traffic over the last three years (in millions of messages)
Chart 1. Increase in daily SWIFT traffic over the last three years (in millions of messages) Source: SWIFT.
Post n°235
Published on 10/26/2021

By Tristan Jourde and Arthur Stalla-Bourdillon

Given the recent outperformance of those sectors best-positioned to accompany the ecological transition, some commentators have voiced fears that a bubble might be emerging in “green” equities. A systematic analysis based on the environmental scores (the “E “in ESG) of over 2,500 stocks in the Datastream Global Equity Index suggests that these fears may be overdone.

Chart 1: Trajectory of prices for clean, neutral and polluting sectors
Chart 1: Trajectory of prices for clean, neutral and polluting sectors Source: Datastream. Scope: World. BdF calculations.
Post n°189
Published on 11/26/2020

By Nicolas Chatelais and Arthur Stalla-Bourdillon

Despite the corrections at the end of 2018 and the Covid-19 shock, price-earnings ratios remain at high levels, particularly in the United States. However, based on indices adjusted for expected growth and the level of interest rates, this trend does not appear to be the result of irrational exuberance like in previous speculative episodes.

Chart 1: Cyclically adjusted P/Es and interest rates in the United States
Chart 1: Cyclically adjusted P/Es and interest rates in the United States Sources: S&P 500, Datastream, Fed Saint Louis & Philadelphia. Author’s calculations. Most recent value: October 2020
Post n°175
Published on 07/31/2020

By Raymond de Pastor

The health crisis has left a significant number of businesses in urgent need of cash. In response, public authorities have put in place various support mechanisms, including a scheme to provide State-Guaranteed Loans (SGLs). The credit mediation system is currently helping businesses that have received an initial refusal from a bank in response to their SGL request.

Number of requests for credit mediation from businesses (monthly average)
Chart 1: Number of requests for credit mediation from businesses (monthly average) Source: Banque de France, Credit Mediation Scheme for Businesses
Post n°167
Published on 06/25/2020

We assess the link between banks' commitments to take climate issues seriously, measured by a climate performance rating based on their declarations, and the changes in their lending in France to greenhouse gas emitting industries between 2010 and 2017. A higher score appears to be associated with lower growth in lending to large enterprises in the five most carbon-intensive industries. However, lending to SMEs is not affected.

Chart 1: Banks’ pro-climate commitments and share of loans to firms in the most carbon-intensive industries in France.
Chart 1: Banks’ pro-climate commitments and share of loans to firms in the most carbon-intensive industries in France. Source: Banque de France, authors’ calculations.
Post n°163
Published on 05/27/2020

A pandemic is the type of challenges that can only be overcome by global action. Despite a pre-crisis context fraught with geopolitical and trade tensions, this necessary international coordination has been achieved in the economic field. However, the post-crisis phase will exacerbate conflicts of interest and constitute a "stress test" for multilateralism.

Chart 1. Measures taken by governments in response to the Covid 19 crisis (as a % of G20+ countries)
Chart 1. Measures taken by governments in response to the Covid 19 crisis (as a % of G20+ countries) Source: IMF, April 2020.
Post n°155
Published on 03/12/2020

What would the economic cost of a systemic firm going bust be? This post addresses this question by assessing the recessionary effect of a systemic default. Within two years, such an event is expected to be followed by a 3% decrease in aggregate consumption and by three more systemic defaults.

Source:  Gourieroux, Monfort, Mouabbi and Renne (2019)
Figure 1: Euro area probability of consumption dropping by more than 10% or 20% (horizon= 12 months) Source: Gourieroux, Monfort, Mouabbi and Renne (2019)
Post n°152
Published on 02/13/2020

By Emilie Candus and Jean-Luc Le Goff

2019 saw very significant growth in labelled funds. With subscription rates higher than the industry average and broadly comparable levels of performance, the label is proving to be a factor of attractiveness for investors. However, the success of the labels is uneven and their penetration in the landscape of French collective investment management remains limited. Further educational and promotional efforts are still needed to step up the distribution of these products among savers.

Chart 1. Labelled funds accounted for only 7% of the French collective investment management market in 2019
Chart 1. Labelled funds accounted for only 7% of the French collective investment management market in 2019 Sources: Association française de la gestion financière (AFG – the French Asset Management Association), Banque de France and the French Ministries for the Economy and for Ecological Transition. Note: Estimate of the responsible investment collective man
Post n°140
Published on 10/29/2019

By Florian Lalanne and Irena Peresa

Responding to China’s greater capital account openness, major investment indices have started incorporating renminbi-denominated securities. This is expected to support portfolio inflows into China and increase the correlation between domestic asset prices and external factors. The consequences for other emerging markets are uncertain.

Composition of the MSCI Emerging markets index (%).
Chart 1: Composition of the MSCI Emerging markets index (%). Source: MSCI. Note: The index is composed of equity securities. China A-shares are renminbi-denominated equities traded in Shanghai and Shenzhen, while China offshore shares are mainly traded in Hong Kong.

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