September 2020

Post n°182
Published on 09/30/2020

By Pierre Aldama, Hadrien Camatte, Jean-François Ouvrard and Paul Sabalot

According to the Banque de France macroeconomic projections published on 14 September 2020, after declining by 8.7% in 2020, GDP growth is expected to stand at 7.4% in 2021 and 3.0% in 2022. Despite this apparently impressive rebound, the economic catching-up process should in reality only be very gradual. GDP should only return to its pre-crisis level at the beginning of 2022. This post provides a few explanations of these unusual growth rates.

Chart 1: France: Projections of the volume of GDP, compared to the post-2008 trajectory
Chart 1: France: Projections of the volume of GDP, compared to the post-2008 trajectory Sources: Insee, Banque de France
Post n°181
Published on 09/25/2020

By Emilie Hermet and Dorothée de Franclieu

In response to the economic impact of the Covid-19 crisis, the European Commission has authorised a temporary easing of the framework governing the use of State aid. While this measure was necessary in an emergency situation, it is likely to distort competition in the internal market if it is used on a wide, prolonged and heterogeneous basis.

Chart 1: Breakdown by country of State aid ceilings authorised by the Commission from 19 March to 8 July 2020
Chart 1: Breakdown by country of State aid ceilings authorised by the Commission from 19 March to 8 July 2020 Sources: European Commission data (estimated ceiling amounts) and author's calculations. The amount of State aid paid out can be de facto much lower than the ceiling amount, in particular in the case of loan guarantees (e.g. Germany).
Post n°180
Published on 09/16/2020

By Vivien Levy-Garboua, François Mouriaux, Tatiana Mosquera Yon and Mylène Sabatini

Since the 2008 financial crisis, captive financial institutions (special-purpose financial holding companies), subsidiaries of non-financial corporations (NFCs), have helped to drive growth in the financial sector, causing it to outstrip GDP growth. This trend reflects the increasingly complex and international organisational structures adopted by NFCs, but does not appear to have been accompanied by growth in risky financial transactions by these entities.

Chart 1a. Foreign direct investment by country, liabilities, % of GDP
Chart 1a. Foreign direct investment by country, liabilities, % of GDP Source: ECB
Post n°179
Published on 09/03/2020

While the Covid-19 shock to the world economy is, in many respects, unprecedented, the recovery that is expected could nevertheless be similar to past ones. Reconstruction and sectoral reallocation of activity and employment are processes that take time, and debt is likely to weigh on aggregate demand. The speed of the recovery will therefore depend less on the nature of the shock than on the measures taken to limit its impact.

Chart 1 Fall in Unemployment in France, Germany, Italy and the United States during recent recoveries.
Chart 1 Fall in Unemployment in France, Germany, Italy and the United States during recent recoveries. Source: OCDE.