July 2020

Post n°175
Published on 07/31/2020

By Raymond de Pastor

The health crisis has left a significant number of businesses in urgent need of cash. In response, public authorities have put in place various support mechanisms, including a scheme to provide State-Guaranteed Loans (SGLs). The credit mediation system is currently helping businesses that have received an initial refusal from a bank in response to their SGL request.

Number of requests for credit mediation from businesses (monthly average)
Chart 1: Number of requests for credit mediation from businesses (monthly average) Source: Banque de France, Credit Mediation Scheme for Businesses
Post n°174
Published on 07/28/2020

By Barbara Castelletti, Marie Delorme, Pavel Diev, Yannick Kalantzis, Antoine Lalliard and Matteo Mogliani

The COVID-19 crisis has required a real-time monitoring of economic activity, which has not been possible with the usual data. However, by using high-frequency data, such as electricity consumption and credit card transactions, it has been possible to estimate the magnitude of the shock and the timing of the rebound at an early stage, for both industrial production and for household consumption.

Chart 1: Impact of the health crisis on household consumption and firms' electricity consumption  (%)
Chart 1: Impact of the health crisis on household consumption and firms' electricity consumption (%) Note: Deviation from a normal level (households) or from the historical average (firms). Household consumption is estimated by credit card transactions. Electricity consumption is adjusted for temperatures and working days.
Post n°173
Published on 07/24/2020

By Olivier de Bandt, Sandrine Lecarpentier and Cyril Pouvelle

Bank solvency and liquidity risks mutually interact. Using a model that simultaneously estimates the solvency and liquidity ratios of French banks, it is possible to incorporate them jointly into a stress scenario. It shows that the financial environment has a significant impact, but only in times of crisis, and that solvency has an impact on liquidity, not vice versa.

Chart 1: Solvency ratio and liquidity ratio of French banks since 1993
Chart 1: Solvency ratio and liquidity ratio of French banks since 1993 Sources: ACPR, authors’ calculations.
Post n°172
Published on 07/22/2020

By Martial Delmas, Lucas Devigne, Emmanuelle Politronacci, Ghjuvanni Torre

The demand for banknotes in the euro area has grown faster than GDP since the creation of the euro. Yet, paradoxically, the use of cash as a means of payment is tending to decline. The increase in the demand for banknotes seems to be mainly due to an increase in precautionary demand from economic agents.

Chart 1:  Continual rise in nominal net banknote issuance (% of GDP)
Chart 1: Continual rise in nominal net banknote issuance (% of GDP) Sources: Banque de France (BdF), Currency Information System (CIS) of the Eurosystem and OECD
Post n°171
Published on 07/17/2020

By Erwan GAUTIER, Youssef ULGAZI, Paul VERTIER

During the lockdown, inflation in France fell sharply while households expected a sharp increase. The profound and sudden change in the structure of household consumption and the strong dispersion of price changes for commonly purchased goods (fresh food, fuel) could explain this unprecedented divergence, which is set to narrow.

Inflation and households’ inflation expectations in France
Chart 1: Inflation and households’ inflation expectations in France Sources: European Commission and Eurostat. Note: y-axis: balance of opinion on price developments over the next 12 months; x-axis: year-on-year % change in the HICP in France. Each point represents a date.
Post n°170
Published on 07/07/2020

US dollar funding costs in foreign exchange markets rose sharply in March 2020 when the supply of US dollars in FX swap markets dried up with the onset of the pandemic. Central banks reacted quickly by activating swap lines, which enabled them to provide US dollar liquidity to banks in their jurisdictions.

Covered Interest Parity deviations in 2020
Chart 1: Covered Interest Parity deviations in 2020 Source: Datastream, FRED. Author’s calculations.
Post n°169
Published on 07/03/2020

Climate policy has so far had limited results despite national commitments under the Paris agreement. Various scenarios establishing a cost-benefit balance of this policy bring to light the main obstacles it is facing. Its net gains are highly significant but remote in time and very unevenly distributed between countries.

Chart 1: Impact on world GDP of global warming and climate policies (as a % of GDP)
Chart 1: Impact on world GDP of global warming and climate policies (as a % of GDP) Source : Alestra, Cette, Chouard and Lecat (2020)